Saturday, March 14, 2020
Genetically Modified Food Essay Example Genetically Modified Food Paper Genetically Modified Food Paper Definition: Genetically engineered (GE) food refers to any product containing or derived from GMOs. Most recently, biotech companies have inserted herbicide-resistance genes into wheat, fish genes into strawberries, human genes into fish and pharmaceuticals like birth control into corn. Genetically modified food refers to the origin of food from genetically modified organisms, produced by genetic engineer. History: Scientists first discovered that DNA can transfer between organisms in 1946. The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. In 1994, the transgenicÃ Flavr SavrÃ tomato was approved by the FDA for marketing in the US the modification allowed the tomato to delay ripening afterScientist experimenting food picking. In the early 1990s, recombinant chymosin was approved for use in several countries, replacing rennet in cheese-making. In the US in 1995, the following transgenic crops received marketing approval:Ã canolaÃ with modified oil composition (Calgene),Ã Bacillus thuringiensisÃ (Bt) corn/maize (Ciba-Geigy), cotton resistant to the herbicideÃ bromoxynilÃ (Calgene),Ã Bt cottonÃ (Monsanto), Bt potatoes (Monsanto), soybeans resistant to the herbicideÃ glyphosateÃ (Monsanto), virus-resistant squash (Monsanto-Asgrow), and additional delayed ripening tomatoes (DNAP, Zeneca/Peto, and Monsanto). In 2000, with the creation ofÃ golden rice, scientists genetically modified food to increase its nutrient value for the first time. Advantages of Genetically Modified Food Figure Naturally grown food Genetic modificationÃ can produce larger, hardier, tastier, and more nutritious foods. For example, Strawberries are sweeter, less acidic flavor; Soybeans have higher protein content, making them more nutritious for livestock and humans. Better production in lesser time, thereby providing food for more people. Have an increased resistance to spoilage with a better shelf life thus can be transported long distances better shelf life. : They are potentially non-allergenic. Provides medicine and vitamin deficiency. For instance, scientists have discovered Golden rice containing to support deficiency of vitamin A causing blindness for half of the world population who live on rice. Naturally grown food consumed by a kid Provide more resistance to diseases. Nowadays, plants can be genetically modified to be better able to survive abiotic extremes, such as frosty temperatures, heat waves, droughts, and poor soil chemistries. Provides an increased production of eggs, milk and meat. More economical to the farmer in terms of production of food. Provides improved health of the population and thereby reduces the economic burden. GE Saves the wild animals. - Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food Environmental activists, religious organizations, public interest groups, professional associations and other scientists and government officials have all raised concerns about GM foods most concerns about GM foods fall into three categories: environmental hazards, human health risks, and economic concerns. Environmental hazards: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is a very real risk of out-crossing, which refers to the transfer of engineered genes (transgenes) from genetically modified crops to conventional, cultivated plants or to related crop species in the wild. This may happen by means of wind, insect pollination, or other transfer. The foreign genes can cross with and contaminate these other species, resulting in a hybridization of the genetically modified crop plant with a non-GMO plant. This could radically alter entire ecosystems if the hybrid plants thrived. Out-crossing can also have an indirect effect on food safety and security, as the contaminated species make their way into the food chain. Human health risks: Perhaps the number one health concern over GM technology is itsÃ capacity to create new allergensÃ in our food supply. Allergic reactions typically are brought on by proteins. Nearly every transfer of genetic material from one host into a new one results in the creation of novel proteins. Genetic engineering can increase the levels of a naturally occurring allergen already present in a food or insert allergenic properties into a food that did not previously contain them. Foreign genetic material in a host can cause other genetic material in that host to behave erratically. One consequence of over expression, for example, can be cancer. Nutritional problems can also result from the transfer.. GM crops have been linked to health problems as diverse as reproductive damage, cancer, AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease and diabetes. GMO is not supported by many institutions Economic concerns: Bringing a GM food to market is a lengthy and costly process, and of course agro-biotech companies wish to ensure a profitable return on their investment. Many new plant genetic engineering technologies and GM plants have been patented, and patent infringement is a big concern of agribusiness. Yet consumer advocates are worried that patenting these new plant varieties will raise the price of seeds so high that small farmers and third world countries will not be able to afford seeds for GM crops, thus widening the gap between the wealthy and the poor. - - - - Conclusion Genetically modified food (GMF) will play an important factor in coming years for full filling the demand of increasing population of worlds as the food productions are not increasing as much as the population. In addition to that, GMF foods are more economical and full of nutrients covering the daily need of an individual which cannot be provide by naturally produced food Though, GMFs have faced some crisis by different institution. Though, we cannot deny itÃ¢â¬â¢s important as it can prove to be a life saving option for countries in Africa, which natives are facing malnutrition and protein deficiency. Therefore, GMOs should be seen as an alternative food rather than primary food category unless more research and development in this field is conducted. Bibliography 1. care2. com/greenliving/health-risks-of-eating-gmo-foods. html#ixzz2c2VlMEok 2. naturalnews. com/029869_GMOs_dangers. html#ixzz2c2TE1wcs 3. naturalnews. com/029869_GMOs_dangers. html#ixzz2c2Ss2Bp7 4. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Genetically_modified_food_controversies 5. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Genetically_modified_food
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
The Technology behind MMOG or MMORPG - Lab Report Example The ever growing internet is one of the factors that can be attributed to the huge success that is witnessed in gaming. It has made it possible to have improvements on the dedicated gaming on the game consoles, the gaming PCs and most importantly, the chance to engage with other players irrespective of their global positioning. The advert of the Smart phones and mobile broadband has also made it possible for people to access the games using their mobile phones. This has also led to an increase in the number of companies that are developing games. Private developers have also not been left out especially after the launch of Android open source platform. Traditionally, gaming was seen as a thing for young boys. This has however changed significantly over the years thanks to the introduction of mobile phones and social networks. Developers have come up with games that are friendly to children, women and even girls. Some of these additions include puzzles, quizzes, arcades and even educa tional games. In fact, it has been observed that women gamers even outnumber their male counterparts in some age sets (Adolph, 2010). The best indicator to how much gaming has impacted the current society is the reports given in the Technology watch report by Adolph (2010). Reportedly, a gaming company lost over 171 million dollars when it experienced a one month outage. Terminals and platforms The gaming industry has seen a huge improvement not only in hardware but also in software over the years. In fact, gaming usually reflects the best and state-of-the-art electronics that are available in the era. The gaming industry has come along way. It began as single game units otherwise known as the pong machines which were placed in arcade halls in the 70s and the 80s. This was followed by the gaming consoles in the 90s and PC games also came on the scene almost concurrently with the gaming consoles. The PC game revolution paved way for easier and more convenient gaming since the games c ould be transported on ROM cartridges, tapes, CD-ROMS and DVDs. This is known as the sneakernet method of transporting games. The evolution in the gaming industry was rapid but the rapid development brought with it the challenge of lack of interoperability. The incompatibility of games and accessories of the games on the platforms provided was a huge challenge not only to the gamers but also to the developers. The advent of social networks and mobile phones has greatly helped to reduce the issues of interoperability but the challenges are still not fully solved. There are still many games that are platform locked (Adolf, 2010). Consoles Microsoft, Sega, Nintendo, Sony and Sega have taken the game industry by storm. They have likewise changed over the years in response to the changing environment in the ICT world. Some of the considerable advancements that have been introduced over the years are network functions, input devices like guitars, joy sticks and other natural user interfac es. The graphics of consoles have greatly been enhanced too. Each company has come up with its own devices that are locked to their platform in a bid to lock in the customers they have. This is a disadvantage to the gamers since the environment makes it impossible for gamers to use any third part accessories on the consoles. In fact, it is not even possible to transfer ones scores in a game from one console to another. Personal computers The contribution of
Monday, February 10, 2020
Managing Organisational Change - Essay Example ge in the organization that there are change management models and dynamics of change theories to serve as guides in the cases of change in the organization. The major cause of the problem in the case study is approach. The approach with which the industrial engineer went about his change is to blame for the problems that were encountered. This argument is made against two of eight dynamics of change lessons suggested by Fullan (1993) and quoted in North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. According to Fullan (1993), Ã¢â¬Å"You cant mandate what matters. The more complex the change, the less you can force it.Ã¢â¬ In fact, the change desired by the engineer was a very major change that should have gone through a series of step-by-step processes in implementing. The engineer seemed to be in a hurry to make the change and perhaps his glory shine. He was therefore eager to force the change (forgoing how his team leader felt about it). The second point raised by Fullan (1993), which is closely related to the first is that Ã¢â¬Å"individualism and collectivism must have equal power. There are no one-sided solutions to isolation and gro up think.Ã¢â¬ For this reason, the engineer should have worked more on convincing all stakeholders in the department to fully understand him before implementing the change and in implementing the change he should have factored in the views and ideas of each and every stakeholder to the latter. Looking at the kind of change that the industrial engineer wanted to undertake, it is the kind that can be described as individual change. For this reason, ADKAR model for individual change developed by Prosci is recommended for future changes of that nature. Ã¢â¬Å"Proscis model of individual change is called ADKAR - an acronym for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and ReinforcementÃ¢â¬ (Prosci, 2010). From the ADKAR model, the industrial engineer should have sensitized an Awareness of the need for change among all stakeholders in the team, sort the
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Legally Blonde Essay Stereotypes are assumptions made about a group of people based on commonalities shared among that group. These assumptions normally have to do with religion, ethnicity, cultural values, and even outward appearances. One of the common reasons stereotypes exist is that it is easy to identify individuals without interacting with them. A person can identify a face and immediately categorize him or her based on information derived from upbringing, past experiences, and the media. Some labels have the capability of harming individuals who are judged based on appearances or nationality. These stereotypes can lead to the mistreatment and prejudices against a particular group of people. For example, after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, a religious group called the Sihks have been attacked on numerous occasions because they were mislabeled as terrorists (NPR). Stereotyping can start at a young age when children are taught to make assumptions. For example, a mother will caution her child not to talk to any strangers. This can lay a foundation for future stereotypes. The child may grow up to be a person who stereotypes and who is prejudice. The child may not know that the assumptions being made rarely apply to each member of a group. Even though there are examples of dumb blondes, many intelligent blondes do exist. Diane Sawyer is a prominent figure in the world of news. In 1984, she broke new ground as the first woman to work as a correspondent on the award-winning news magazine 60 Minutes (Bio. True Story). She also has blonde hair. This proves that stereotypes do not apply to everyone of a certain group. Some common examples of stereotypes are people who wear glasses are nerds or all Asians are very intelligent. One of the most commonly known stereotype is the dumb blonde persona. It has been presented in film, music and even in literature. Not only is the blonde stereotype being represented in the media, but also in marketing. There is a shampoo made by Bed Head called Dumb Blonde. The blondeÃ¢â¬â¢s label states that the lack of intelligence is based on hair color. This leads the blonde to be depicted to rely on looks rather than intelligence to be successful in life. Many jokes are made based on the stereotype as well. An example is Ã¢â¬Å"What do you call a fly buzzing inside a blondes head? A Space Invader. Ã¢â¬ (Cracked. com). In the sitcom ThreeÃ¢â¬â¢s Company, a blonde character named Chrissy is ditzy and gets a lot of attention from many groups of men. She is easy to confuse and is quick to fall for men. The media takes the blonde label and dramatizes it with the persona of Chrissy. One of the most famous blondes that seems to fit the stereotype is Paris Hilton. She has been quoted as saying many outrageous statements such as, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really think, I just walk. Ã¢â¬ (Brainy Quote). She is successful at exploiting the dumb blonde persona. Another statement said by Hilton is, Ã¢â¬Å"I get half a million just to show up at parties. My life is, like, really, really fun. Ã¢â¬ (Brainy Quote). Hilton uses her dumb blonde character in order to get farther in life. With an in depth look into Paris Hilton it may be found that she possesses more intelligence than what she portrays. It is known that she is an American heiress, socialite, television personality, fashion designer, model, actress, producer, author, and singer. Paris Hilton is a good example of the dumb blonde. She gives people the idea that all blondes are like her, when in reality, they are not. From the sitcom ThreeÃ¢â¬â¢s Company in 1977, to the rich and famous Hollywood star Paris Hilton, the dumb blonde can be found almost anywhere. However, the media is taking small steps to counter represent the blonde. In the 2001 movie Legally Blonde, the main character Elle Woods evolves from the stereotypical blonde to a Harvard Law graduate. In the beginning, she was the president of her sorority, had a pet Chihuahua and majored in fashion merchandising. She states, Two weeks ago I saw Cameron Diaz at Fred Segal, and I talked her out of buying this truly heinous angora sweater. Whoever said orange was the new pink was seriously disturbed! (Legally Blonde). She then applied to Harvard Law School with an application video that showed her in a bikini with her and her friends. Surprisingly, she was immediately accepted and later graduated with high honors. In Legally Blonde, Elle displays her intelligence by solving a murder in an unconventional way. This movie does show the classic stereotypes of blondes in the beginning but then turns it around to make the blonde an intelligent honors student who goes on to be a successful attorney. Stereotypes can be stopped by preventing assumptions or getting to know someone instead of pre-judging them. It should be understood that stereotypes rarely apply to everyone of that group. The media can reduce stereotypes by ignoring them instead of marketing them. By making characters who portray their stereotype, audiences come to believe that the label applies to everyone in a particular group. If the stereotype is not represented at all, it can help the general public forget that stereotypes ever existed. Everyone has the capability of putting stereotypes to rest, it is just a matter of having an open mind. An example can be set to others and soon stereotypes will come to an end. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Diane Sawyer. Ã¢â¬ Bio. True Story. Web. 3 August 2013. Inskeep, Steve. Ã¢â¬Å"Sikhs Face More Attacks Since Sept. 11 Tragedies. Ã¢â¬ NPR. Web. 3 August 2013 Legally Blonde. Dir. Robert Luketic. 2001. Film. Paris Hilton Quotes. Brainy Quote. Web. 4 August 2013.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Before computers there were hands and tools. Before hands and tools there were just hands. Humans have always been designing and throughout human history drafting is what became of it. With new technology in building during the earlier years drafting needed to be changed to accommodate it. Humans have always been able to find better ways to accomplish things. Drafting is no different. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Before people used tools to draw something they went to what we call now a Ã¢â¬Å"General ContractorÃ¢â¬ with an idea and he had to come up with the rest. After a while the contractors wanted more. Just an idea wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough for them. Their clients sometimes wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t like what they had built for them. So eventually the contractors asked the clients to tell them exactly what they wanted. Since it was hard to sketch accurately, tools were developed to aid them in drawing. This enabled the client to show the contractor exactly what he wanted. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As the population grew rapidly the demands for faster and more accurate plans did also. Once again drafters looked for a new way to draw. They decided to turn to the computer. In the 1950s MIT discovered the capability to display a computer-generated image on the screen (Zandi, 5). Up until the mid to late 1970s drafters used this technology just for mathematical calculations (Goetsch, 23). Then they discovered that the computer could be used to display more than just numbers. They found that they could use it to draw on. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the early 1980s that this new technology caught on (Goetsch, 23). Drafters found that using computers was much quicker, more accurate, and much neater than hand drawn plans. They had found their solution, Computer Aided Drafting and Design or CADD. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Now that CADD has found it way into drafting it has been improving upon drafting greatly over the past 20 years. Today nearly all firms use CAD (Friedman). It has changed the way people go about their drawing and designing process. The variety of new programs has made everything more accurate, there are many more ways to think towards a problem, and the process of fast tracking has come about. It has changed the society in many ways. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Whether using CADD or drawing a project traditionally, drafters always start off with a sketch. When brainstorming ideas i... ... in the office (Friedman). People sometimes have conflicting ways to go about something but in the end it all looks the same (Friedman). The human beingsÃ¢â¬â¢ inherent slowness and inaccuracy in performing manual drafting tasks such as lettering, line work, and scale work, coupled with the ever increasing demands for higher levels of productivity, led to the wide scaled development of CADD (Zandi, 4). Drafting has been influence by CADD over the years and so has technology. The more we can do by drafting the more we can accomplish technologically. CADD has allowed us to accomplish these things. It devises a different way of thinking. (Friedman) And like the railroad, electric light, or the car it will eventually alter our economic structures, our social systems, and our daily living. IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s best thinking on this matter is that the computer did not turn out to be primarily a computational mechanism but is for many different things (Zandi, 22). CADD allowed us to design something as complex as a skyscraper and it allows us to create many other complex things. (Grad, 17) Many things are still to come of CADD can we can only await to see how it will change or society and our drafters more.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
1. Hinduism- Caste System, Enlightenment, no holy book, no single founder, India, polytheistic, Buddhism- India, no caste system, egalitarian, Siddhartha Gautama, missionaries, Nirvana, Eight fold path, four noble truths, Enlightenment Christianity-Monotheistic, Jesus, Bible, Jerusalem, Missionaries, Heaven and Hell 2. Domestication of Animals, Complex societies, Specialization, Cities, Government, Religion, Record Keeping, Social Classes, Technology 3. Located near rivers, Agriculture, irrigation, Rulers, social hierarchy, 4. Development of Agriculture and Domestication 5. Democracy, Representative, voting, Senate, ruler 6. Buddhism- Zen Buddhism, Filial Piety, Hinduism-not syncretic Christianity-Catholic, Protestant, Baptist, Lutheran 7. Size, Bureaucracies, Emphasis on Family, Roads, Religions, Han-Confucianism, Rome-Christianity, 8. Nomadic, Clans, Wars over oasis, no central religion, Chiefs of clans, 9. Pray every day towards Mecca, Alms giving, Hajj to Mecca, fasting, Declaration of Faith 10. In Arabian peninsula spread through trade and missionaries, contagious 11. Sense of Unity, peace among the clans, sacred texts were stored 12. Housewives 13. Each invasion caused the capital to move north 14. LEFT BLANK 15. LEFT BLANK 16. Missionaries 17. Started to decline 18. Many were animistic, salt as a substitute for gold 19. Christian, rich due to slaves 20. United the people 21. Arabian Peninsula, Red or Black sea, 22. Barter 23. Major trade routes influenced Kiev Russia 24. Structures, law codes, bureaucracy 25. Patriarch held power, rituals, priest celibacy, orthodox priests could marry, excommunication each other in 1054 26. Similar to china, emperor ordained by god, head of church and state, practiced lay investiture, women eld imperial throne (exe Empress Theodora and Zoe), byzantine bureaucrats recruited from all classes, recruited troops, empire depended on Constantinople 27. Lost land, economic decline, Constantinople fell 28. Social examination, formal 29. Used to regain the holy land, last crusade sacked Constantinople, pope ordered it, increase of trade, established religious capital 30. Lords and vassals, serfs, relied on agriculture, fiefs, 3 field system, technology advancements 31. Religious Leaders- Pope, Bishops, Priests, Pope Urban II, Gregory IV, Literary Leaders- Chaucer, Machiavelli, Thomas Aquinas Philosophical Leaders- Saint Clare, Saint Francis 32. Trade increase, manufacturing, territorial gain, 33. both had slaves, West Africa relied on Hunting and gathering, South America had agriculture, 34. Disease, gunpowder 35. Peasants, kings 36. Wars, trade, military 37. Indians, hunter gatherer 38. Aztecs conquered the toltecs 39. Anti-Buddhist, rejected 40. Status of women decreased 41. Unification by Wendi, ended famine, lowered taxes, Yang Di overworked peasants 42. Better examination system, paper money, plow, grand canal, junk ships 43. Male dominance, revival of Confucianism 4. Both had a bureaucracy and examination exam, Chinese had a dynastic succession, Europeans had a fight for power, in china empresses are possible, 45. Peasants reduced to serfdom, over worked, 46. Yi, Koryo, Silla 47. Manorial System, everyone had an important society, 48. Military Elites eventually became part of the imperial court 49. Dynasties, all modeled after Chinese except for Vietnam 50. Women w ere almost equal to men, herded a lot, warlike 51. Golden Horde-affected Russia Empire of Kublai Khan-China Ilkhan- Persia Djagatai Ã¢â¬âcentral Asia 52. Mongols cut Russia off, inhibited culture and technology, Mongols destroyed the Islamic heartland 53. Tumens 1k cavalries 54. Harsh, no prosperity, short-lived, smaller conquests 55. Clothing, Arabians spread religion to Indians, Arabs spread technology to Europe, Europeans wanted to trade with India 56. Peasant uprisings, high taxes, abuse of power, Mongol threat, economic decline 57. Increase trade, conquest, Portuguese freed Ethiopians from Islam 58. Increased influence through the arts, Enlightenment, Literature by Machiavelli and others 59. Disease, slave trade, fall of many civilizations 60. Technology, Animals, Leadership, Conquest 61. World Trade, Slaves 62. Decreased population, Inflation, Competition 63. Guns, Boats, Technology 64. Core Area-main area of power in country, Dependent Zone- are dependent on core areas 65. Australia, 66. God doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t influence life, people control their own life 67. Based on scientific findings, god wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t involved 68. Against sacraments, against priest celibacy, protested against the Catholics, 30 years war, more conflicts, 69. Sell more than you buy, everyone tried to sell their wares 70. Louis the XIV suppressed the nobility, gained all the power, spread around 71. Russia had a smaller economy, Russia was technologically limited, Russia was bigger, exerted more power 72. Tsar suppressed the local nobility 73. Westernization, too much imports, not enough exports 74. Brutal, overworked, not advanced in technology, 75. Serfdom in Russia, Slaves in Western Europe, absolute monarchies in both 76. Militaristic, White, strong leadership, imperialistic 77. Discovery of gold and silver, inflation 78. Plantations, slaves, 79. Imaginary North to South line, separates Spanish and Portuguese colonies 80. Based on plantations, silver mining, slave trade 1. Replaceable, easy to attain, cheap, complimentary industries flourished 82. Gun slave trade, internal strife, dominance, War for slaves 83. Set up ports, applied own rules, controlled coast, supplied arms, 84. Common sense 85. Decrease in males, increase in polygamy, decrease in labor 86. Powerful, lots of land, Good government, 87. A bigot, 88. Internal strife, IsmaÃ¢â¬â¢il took power 89. Under safavids treated poorly, under the ottomans treated well 90. Cared less about the dynasties progress and more over the arts, 91. Difference-religion, Similarity- education and learning,
Monday, January 6, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 670 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/06/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: The Giver Essay Did you like this example? Imagine a place where there is colorlessness, no choice; a place where there is only uniformity and dullness. The author has created such an obscure place in the The Giver. We do not know the exact location or time period, however since it is fiction we usually think of it as being set some time in the future where everyone accommodates to the rules. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Obscure Place In The The Giver" essay for you Create order The residents have no connection with their ancestors or any memories at all. There are only two people who have access to this; one is the Giver and the other is the Receiver of Memory. These are the main characters in the story. The Giver is an old man that gives his memories to the Receiver, Jonas, a twelve year old boy. When Jonas receives memories, he learns about negative things like war, hate, and pain. He also gains memories of good things like colors, love, and joy. In the novel, the author portrays many benefits and drawbacks of living in the society of The Giver. Some of the many benefits includes, everyone is treated the same, there are many career opportunities available and everyone is safe. The drawbacks are that the community releases people who do not fit in, there is no love, and people have no choice. The pros of sameness, and the purpose behind this philosophy, would be getting rid of the negative components in the world. To start off, we can look at physical similarities. Every citizen in the community has the perspective that everyone has the same skin color, eye color, and hair color. Realistically, this idea of sameness would eliminate racism and many other unfair advantages that people may have. Ultimately, the aspect of sameness can be beneficial to the community in various different ways. Also, another pro of living in the community would be that everyone has an equal chance at a career. Each individual receives the same amount of education, employment, and has an equal chance at a career that they would like to pursue. No one even has to think about what career they would like to pick because it is already chosen for them. A committee of elders carefully observes each child close to turning twelve and assigns them a job. The final benefit is that everyone is safe. No member of the community every has to worry about doing without or providing for their family. Everyone has food, shelter, and medical care. At one point in the novel, Jonas is punished for saying that he is starving. His community stresses the carefulness of language choice. Although he may have been hungry at the moment, he is reminded that he is not and nor will he ever be starving as long as he lives there. The first drawback of living in The Giver community is that the community releases people who do not fit in. An example is that a newborn is born a twin. Because two indistinguishable people would be too confusing for everyone, they killed one of them and claimed to release the newborn. The community also releases anyone who breaks three rules. The committee tries to hide that being releases also means that the person is killed. Another drawback is that there is no love. Parents only have mild affection for their children and do not truly love their kids. They are paired by the committee and there is no closeness or real concept of family. When Jonas receives memories of love, he wants to obtain it for himself. He later asks his parents if they love him, and they say that they enjoy being around him but scold him for his improper language. The final drawback is that people have no choice over many things. Choice is what makes life worth living. Yes, choice can cause pain and suffering, but it can also cause great joy as well. A world without choice can be very boring and dull. In the community, your job, spouse, children, and death date is chosen for you.